Waste of oil products — what is it
Oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons, sulfur-and oxygen-containing compounds. Roughly speaking, waste from oil production and refining is the difference between the oil produced and the products derived from it. According to scientific terminology, oil-containing waste, or oil sludge – is a multicomponent mixture, which contains petroleum products, clay, various metal oxides, sand and water. The listed components in fractions of a unit are in the ratio:
substances of organic origin: 0,1-0,25;
substances of inorganic origin: 0.05 -0.3;
Oily waste is generated at all stages of production, transportation, processing, storage and use of oil and products derived from it:
during production, oil is spilled onto the ground and mixed with soil or soil;
during transportation by sea, accidents and accidental ingress of oil products into the water are possible (oil waste is included in the water-oil emulsion). During transportation by land or through pipes, accidental ingress of oil and its products to the soil surface is also possible (a mixture of petroleum products and soil is formed);
at refineries, wastewater containing oil waste is collected for sedimentation in special ponds and oil traps. After settling, the surface of the pond contains up to 80% of oil sludge, muddy bottom — up to 1%, the middle part — up to 90%. After cleaning the tanks where oil or oil products were stored, a mixture of oil sludge with mechanical impurities, such as rust, is formed;
when used and stored, spills of oil and petroleum products are possible (a mixture of petroleum products and soil is formed).
Oily waste can be divided into:
Liquid waste containing a lot of water and easily separated from it.
Gel-like waste obtained by chemical treatment of wastewater. Separation of waste from water is difficult.
Waste containing little combustible products and is not practically separable from water.
Waste with a high concentration of petroleum products, requiring special methods of disposal.
Mankind uses the following methods of disposal of oily waste:
Placement in sealed containers and burial in special landfills. The method is not environmentally appropriate due to the risk of leaks and accidents. Its use can lead to environmental disasters. In addition, it is economically much more profitable to use oil waste for the second time.
Disinfection and recycling. This method includes methods:
The thermal method involves incineration of oil refining waste in furnaces, drying, pyrolysis and thermal desorption. More is the combustion in the bubbling chamber, a shaft, rotary kilns and fluidized bed.
This method of disposal can be called more effective along with other possible methods. Thermal utilization of oil waste and fire neutralization of contaminated water in the presence of a fuel-burning plant is economically feasible and environmentally beneficial to carry out in places of their formation.